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Once the types of absenteeism have been identified, the company must analyse the causes of that absenteeism. To do so, it must take into account that absenteeism is a multi-causal and complex phenomenon that is related to the company, the individual and society, and therefore the objective and subjective causes will have to be analysed. Causes of absenteeism can be classified into four groups:
Recent studies have found a positive correlation between the generosity of medical coverages of absences and the number of them, and more absences are also detected in the countries in which there is a greater coverage of unemployment protection.
Various studies document that factors related to working conditions, that is, the model of remuneration, the management style, the type of contract, the type of work done, teamwork, the atmosphere surrounding in the workplace, the measures of conciliation and the culture of absenteeism itself in the organisation influence the phenomenon of absenteeism of the company.
Similarly, the type of company, its size, the sector to which it belongs, if it is public or private company, also influence absenteeism.
The absenteeism is a countercyclical phenomenon. Periods of economic crisis reduce absenteeism and periods of economic recovery increase absenteeism rates.
On one hand, some studies establish a connection between absences and the demographic factors of the individual: age, sex, marital status and on the other hand, when absences are analysed it is necessary to analyse them from the point of view of the relationship of the individual with the organisation, this is, aspects related with organisational commitment, the satisfaction and involvement of each worker in his/her work and with his/her company.
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